Egypt is one of the oldest historical country of mordern era. It is considered a cradle of civilization and experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest worldwide.
The Great Pyramid of Cheops which was built by manual labor, is the largest of the three main Pyramids and is the only survivor of the Seven Great Wonders of the Ancient World, the Pyramid of Chephren, which is the best preserved, and the Pyramid of Mycerinus. Nearby see the Sphinx, a marvelous sight carved out of a natural rocky outcrop, the lion’s body stretching 45m, with its paws 15m long.
Egypt’s rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured, and at times assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European. Although Christianize in the first century of the Common Era, it was subsequently Islamised due to the Islamic conquests of the seventh century.